Economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from nonaerosol applications



Publisher: Rand Corp. in Santa Monica, CA

Written in English
Published: Pages: 292 Downloads: 383
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Places:

  • United States.

Subjects:

  • Air -- Pollution -- Economic aspects -- United States.,
  • Chlorofluoromethane -- Environmental aspects -- United States.,
  • Chlorofluorocarbons -- Environmental aspects -- United States.,
  • Air -- Pollution -- Law and legislation -- Economic aspects -- United States.

Edition Notes

  Evolution of CFC Seasonality and Implications for Emissions [26] In this subsection, we examine how annual cycles of CFCs have changed between and as emissions decreased. We use the AGAGE data set which excludes pollution events to examine variations driven by the seasonal change in the large‐scale transport of polluted air.   Economists have argued for the widespread application of market incentives to environmental problems for over 30 years. It would indeed be unfortunate if oversight and neglect silence their arguments just as they are gaining an audience. Kathleen A. Wolf, Economic Implications of Regulating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions from Nonaerosol. Clean Air Act (CAA), U.S. federal law, passed in and later amended, to prevent air pollution and thereby protect the ozone layer and promote public Clean Air Act (CAA) gave the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the power it needed to take effective action to fight environmental pollution. The CAA was expanded from its original set of guidelines, in which the states. The United States has made great progress since in cleaning the air, but the job is far from complete. Novem marks a milestone in Clean Air Act history, the signing of the Amendments. These amendments set the stage for protecting the ozone layer, reducing acid rain and toxic pollutants, and improving air quality and visibility.

The increasing worldwide demand for CFCs, coupled with the growing scientific evidence on the role of CFCs as both an ozone depleter and a greenhouse gas, and the realization that some type of international agreement regulating CFCs would be adopted, forced industry to re-evaluate its position In the fall of , the Alliance for. Unfortunately, this book can't be printed from the OpenBook. If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a PDF. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF. If, on the basis of the risk profile, the committee finds that the "chemical is likely, as a result of its long-range environmental transport to lead to significant adverse human health and/or environmental effects such that global action is warranted," the committee prepares a risk management evaluation that considers socio-economic factors. Online Resource Book Published [Washington, D.C.]: Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos, Oficina de Prevención de Contaminación y Tóxicos, [] Description [2] p.: digital, PDF file. [Description] Mode of access: Internet from the EPA web site.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are fully or partly halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (C), hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name most common representative is dichlorodifluoromethane (R or Freon). This workshop emphasized small-group discussion as well as addition to speaker presentations to gain a greater understanding of the key issues regarding the measurement of costs and benefits of the food system through in-depth expert discussions on focused topics. The complete second half of the first day was spent with participants divided into working groups, with each working group focused. Because of a growing concern over stratospheric ozone depletion and its attendant dangers, a ban was imposed on the use of CFCs in aerosol-spray dispensers in the late s by the United States, Canada, and the Scandinavian , 93 nations agreed, as part of the Montreal Protocol (established ), to end production of ozone-depleting chemicals by the end of the 20th century. “An Analysis of the Effects of Marital Status, Educational Attainment, and Occupation on the Size and Composition of Urban China’s Gender Wage Differentials,” (with M. Maurer-Fazio) Pacific Economic Review, v. 7, n. 1, pp. , February,

Economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from nonaerosol applications Download PDF EPUB FB2

Epa_ / october, economic implications op regulating chlorofluorocarson emissions from nonaerosol applications contract no. & project officer: ellen warhit regulatory impacts branch economics & technology division office of toxic substances washington, d.c.

u.s. environmental protection agency office of pesticides and toxic substances. Concern over danger to the Economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from nonaerosol applications book layer led the Environmental Protection Agency to ban most chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) aerosol applications, but U.S.

nonaerosol emissions could reach million pounds annually by The report examines two strategies for controlling emissions, one based on mandatory controls, the other on economic by: Concern over danger to the ozone layer led the Environmental Protection Agency to ban most chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) aerosol applications, but U.S.

nonaerosol emissions could reach million pounds annually by The report examines two strategies for controlling emissions, one based on mandatory controls, the other on economic : Adele Palmer, W. Mooz, Timothy H. Quinn, Kathleen A. Wolf. Economic implications of regulating nonaerosol chlorofluorocarbon emissions: an executive briefing.

[Adele R Palmer; Rand Corporation.; United States. Environmental Protection Agency.;] However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study.

The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing. Economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from nonaerosol applications: an executive briefing.

By Rand Corporation. and United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Sincealmost all use of CFCs to propel aerosol products has been banned. As part of a study to examine the economic impact of regulating CFC emissions in nonaerosol applications, this Note assesses the im- plications of potential regulations for the.

epa/ october flexible urethane foams and chlorofluorocarbon emissions a support document for economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from nonaerosol applications contract no.

& project officer: ellen warhit regulatory impacts branch economics and technology division office of toxic substances washington, d.c. Abstract "Contract no. & ""October ""Regulatory Impacts Branch, Economics & Technology Division, Office of Toxic Substances.""Regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions, effects on chemical production, support document for economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from nonaerosol applications"es bibliographical.

In Augustthe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued final regulations that implement the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regulations require a 50% reduction in consumption of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) within 10 years and a freeze on consumption of halons within 4 years.

The Montreal Protocol provisions were designed in September. Economic Implications of Regulating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions Envirofiche from Nonaerosol Applications.

Santa Monica, California^ Rand Corporation, June pp. (Rand Report REPA, special report prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.). Presents estimates of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and precursor chemical production for the historical periodand projections for production in the absence of policy action.

Examines effects on producing industries of limiting CFC emissions under a mandatory control strategy and various economic incentives strategies.

Full Document Available in PDF Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are an important class of compounds. They have an impact on the life of nearly every American. Yet, as a result of environmental fears, their production will soon be eliminated – by the year In making this decision, little consideration was given to the costs of eliminating [ ].

Economic Implications of Regulating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions From Nonaerosol Applications. Santa Monica: The Rand Corporation.

Google Scholar. Fay, Kevin J. “Statement.” Prepared for the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, Ozone Layer Depletion [hearings, March 9]. th Congress, First session. Get this from a library.

Economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from nonaerosol applications. [Adele R Palmer; W E Mooz; Timothy H Quinn; Kathleen A Wolf; Rand Corporation.; International Research and Technology Corporation.; United States.

Environmental Protection Agency.; U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. EMPIRICAL APPLICATION TO THE LOWER DELAWARE VALLEY (Resources for the Future Discussion Paper No. D-). See, e.g., ADELE. PALMER ET AL., ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF REGULATING CHLOROFLUOROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM NONAEROSOL APPLICATIONS (Rand Corp.

Rep. Part of this effort was a study of the economic impli- cations of regulating CFC emissions, performed by The Rand Corporation under Contracts PC and The results of that study are reported in Rand Report REPA, Economic Implications of Regu- lating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions from Nonaerosol Applications, by.

Economic Implications of Regulating Nonaerosol Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions: An Executive Briefing. Jan 1, Report. Report. Economic Implications of Regulating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions from Nonaerosol Applications. Jan 1, Report. Report. Economic Impact Assessment of a Chlorofluorocarbon Production Cap.

Jan 1, Palmer, Adele R., William E. Mooz, Timothy H. Quinn and Kathleen A. Wolf (), 'Economic Implications of Regulating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions from Nonaerosol Applications', prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Santa Monica: The RAND Corporation. Google Scholar. It examines costs generated by industry and consumer response to the regulation in several alternative scenarios. It concludes that between the cap could cost the U.S. economy up to $ million if industries and consumers adjust slowly to higher prices caused by restricted CFC supplies.

A brief review of the information available on technological means for reducing anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is provided.

No assessment of economic or institutional difficulties for. For a more detailed explanation, the reader may wish to consult three publications from the earlier CFC research project: o A. Palmer et al., Economic Implications of Regulating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions from Nonaerosol Applications, REPA, June Economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from nonaerosol applications: an executive briefing EP C 45/3 Economic impact assessment of a chlorofluorocarbon production cap: support document, section 6, proposed rule, toxic substances control act.

Rand () Economic implications of regulating chlorofluorocarbon emissions from non-aerosol appli- cations. Report issued by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/ Rasmussen R. () Report from Oregon Graduate Centre on conlract FC, CMA. Adele R. Palmer et al., Economic Implications of Regulating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions from Nonaerosol Applications (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp., ); cited in Brown and LyonAlso see RowlandsGoogle Scholar.

W.T. Tsai, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Abstract. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cause significantly stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming relating to the greenhouse effect. CFCs under commercial uses as refrigerants and blowing agents include trichlorofluoromethane (CFC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC), 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC), 1,2.

Sinceannual emissions of a banned chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) have increased by around 7, tonnes from eastern China, according to new research published in Nature today [Wednesday 22 May. Chlorofluorocarbons, also known as CFCs, consist of chemical compounds made up of chlorine, fluorine and carbon.

CFCs are particularly harmful when released into the atmosphere because of their destructive reaction with O-zone particles, which provide the Earth with a. Read "Economic Analysis, Environmental Policy, and Intergenerational Justice in the Reagan Administration The Case of the Montreal Protocol, "International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics"" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.

Rowland, a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine, and Molina, a postdoctoral fellow in Rowland’s laboratory, had shown that chlorofluorocarbons—CFCs—could destroy ozone, a molecule made up of three oxygen atoms, O 3, in Earth’s stratosphere.

That stratospheric ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation that otherwise. Environmental technology and services is a large and growing U.S. industry. The United States is the world's largest producer and consumer of environmental protection technologies worldwide, according to a U.S.

Department of Commerce report (PDF) 17 (42 pp, KB, ) Inthe United States’ environmental technologies and services industry supported million jobs.

Abstract Current debate on consumer,regulation in open markets,focuses on two hypotheses: that economic,globalization,erodes,governments',efforts to protect consumers;,and,that international free.In Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), Drug administration route. The removal of chlorofluorocarbons from industrial and household products underlies the “Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer”.

A reformulation of ipratropium bromide using an alternative, non-chlorofluorocarbon propellant, hydrofluoroalkane, a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane.Flexible Urethane Foams and Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions RAND.

Flexfoam-it! expanding flexible foams are easy to use and durable. They are lightweight, versatile and most are avai.